|中文名||金刚石||The molecular weight||12.0107（8）|
|Chemical formula||C||Dense degree of||3.52g/ cm3|
Physical property data
1. Properties: powder
2. Density (g/mLat 25°C) : 3.5
3. Melting point (°C) : 3550°C -- 4000°C
4. Absolute hardness: 10000-2500
Computational chemical data
1. Reference value of hydrophobic parameter calculation (XlogP) : -1.1
2. Number of hydrogen bond donors: 0
3. Number of hydrogen bond receptors: 2
4. Number of rotatable chemical bonds: 0
5. Interconvert Number of tautomorphic isomers:
6. Topological molecule polarity surface area (TPSA) : 34.1
7. Number of heavy atoms: 2
8. Surface charge: 0
9. Complexity: 0
10. Isotopic atomic number: 0
11. Determine the number of atomic structure centers: 0
12. Number of radial centers of uncertain atoms: 0
13. Determine the number of structural centers of chemical bonds: 0
14. Number of structure centers of uncertain chemical bonds: 0
15. Number of covalent bond units: 1 
Mohs hardness 10, New mohs hardness 15, Microhardness 10000kg/mm2, Microhardness is 1000 times higher than quartz, 150 times higher than corundum. Diamond hardness has directivity, Octahedral crystal surface hardness is higher than diamond dodecahedron crystal surface hardness, diamond dodecahedron crystal surface hardness is higher than hexahedral crystal surface hardness.
Subject to the Mohs hardness scale, diamond shall be subject to a maximum of 10 grades. For example, the hardness of penknife is about 5.5, Copper coin is about 3.5 to 4, nail is about 2 to 3, glass hardness is about 6.
Due to the highest hardness, Diamond cutting and machining must be done using diamond powder or laser (such as 532nm or 1064nm wavelength laser). The density of diamond is 3.52g/ cm3, The refractive index is 2.417(under 500 nm light wave), and the dispersion rate is 0.044.
Diamonds come in all colors, From colorless to black, With colorless being the best. They can be transparent, Translucent or opaque. Many diamonds are yellow, Mainly because they contain impurities. Diamond has a very high index of refraction and dispersion, Which is why it reflects colorful flashes. The diamond will emit blue-green fluorescence under X-ray irradiation. Diamond primary ore is only produced in kimberlite tube or a few lamprophyres. Kimberlite is their mother rock. Diamonds from other places are carried by rivers and glaciers. Diamonds are generally granular. If diamond is heated to 1000℃, it will slowly turn into graphite.
The chemical composition of diamond is C, Which is the same substance as carbon with graphite. In mineral chemical composition, There are always elements such as Si, Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, Ni, and impurities such as Na, B, Cu, Fe, Co, Cr, Ti, N, as well as carbohydrates.
Diamond mineral crystal structure belongs to isometric homopolar bond tetrahedral structure. Carbon atoms are located at the angular top and center of a tetrahedron and have a high degree of symmetry. The carbon atoms in the unit cell are connected by homopolar bonds at a distance of 154pm. The common crystal forms are octahedron, diamond dodecahedron, cube, tetrahedron and hexahedron.
The absolute hardness of diamond is 4 times that of corundum and 8 times that of quartz. The details of absolute hardness are as follows:
Minerally brittle, shell-shaped or irregular fracture, with moderate or complete cleavage of parallel octahedron and incomplete cleavage of parallel dodecahedron, Will split along the cleavage plane of crystal under small impact. Mineral pure, The density is generally 3470-3560kg/m3. The color of diamond depends on the degree of purity and the types and contents of impurity elements. The extremely pure diamond is colorless, and usually presents yellow, brown, gray, green, blue, milky white and purple in different degrees. Transparent, Translucent or opaque with impurities; Pure. Under cathode rays, X rays and ultraviolet rays, Different green, Sky blue, Purple, Yellow-green and other colors of fluorescence will be emitted. Light blue phosphorescence in dark room after sunlight exposure; Diamond luster, A few grease or metallic luster, High refractive index, Generally 2.40-2.48.
Diamond is a kind of simple crystal composed of carbon element formed under high pressure and high temperature in the deep earth. It refers to polished diamond. Diamond is a colorless regular octahedral crystal, Which is composed of pure carbon and is linked by four-valence bond by carbon atoms. It is the hardest natural substance known to exist at present. The c-c bond in diamond is very strong, And all valence electrons are involved in the formation of covalent bonds. There are no free electrons, So the hardness of diamond is very large. The melting point of diamond is 6900 degrees Fahrenheit.
Diamond for geological bit and petroleum bit, Diamond for drawing die, Diamond for abrasive, Diamond for dresser, Diamond for glass cutter, Diamond for hardness gauge head, Diamond for handicraft.